How many species of elephants are there?
Until very recently it was thought that there were only two species of elephants - the Asian elephant Elephas maximus
and the African elephant Loxodonta africana
. There are several subspecies of each of these, including what was, until recently, thought to be a subspecies of the African elephant, Central Africa's forest elephant Loxodonta africana cyclotis
. But genetic research now suggests that the forest elephant of central Africa is actually a third species, genetically distinct from the others (read more here
), although the boundaries of the ranges between African savannah elephants and forest elephants are still unclear. So in fact there are probably three species of elephants, all of them unique.
Are African elephants endangered?
The African elephant population is doing better than it was twenty years ago when the international ivory ban was introduced in 1989, but it is now much lower than it once was. Some say there were millions of elephants in Africa at the start of the twentieth century. Since 2006, however, there have been worrying trends in Africa, showing that poaching of elephants for their ivory is again on the rise (read more here
). Poaching has not been this severe in decades and long-time elephant conservationists like Iain Douglas-Hamilton
and Daphne Sheldrick
are calling it a crisis. Central and western Africa have been hardest hit, the home of the unique, little known forest elephants, and slaughters of masses of elephants are happening in places like Cameroon and the Central African Republic, but elephant poaching is also increasing in East and Southern Africa.
There are thought to be about 500,000 elephants in Africa overall, with the vast majority (more than half) occurring in southern Africa, and the largest country population in Botswana (approx. 130,000, and relatively stable in the last decade). The IUCN Red List
considers African elephants to be Near Threatened, however poaching records suggest Africa may be losing 30,000 or more elephants a year to poachers. Poachers kill elephants with poisoned spears, bows and arrows and automatic weapons. Why? For their ivory. Poachers in Africa make a small fortune when they hand ivory over to criminal middlemen for sale in Asia.
Where is the Ivory Going?
It used to be that Europe, the United States and Japan were the main buyers driving the demand for ivory. That was in the 1980s when it was estimated that 100,000 per year were being killed (read more here
), but the international ban and some very effective consumer awareness campaigns reduced these markets to a mere trickle. Now most of the ivory from poached African elephants goes to China
, and a lot to Thailand where the trade is completely unregulated (although the current Thai Prime Minister, Yingluck Shinawatra, looks like she is going to try
and change this - more in my blog
), via smuggling routes across south-east Asian transit countries (some of which are also consumers of ivory) like Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia and Laos. TRAFFIC estimates that the illegal ivory trade is now triple what it was ten years ago (read more here
). Ivory is carved into amulets, artworks, jewellery and cigarette lighters, among other things. When you visit any Asian countries, don't buy ivory of any kind - it may have come from illegally killed African elephants.
What About Asian Elephants?
The Asian elephant is listed as Endangered, with only about 35,000 left. Most of the Asian elephant population occurs in India (approx 25,000), with much smaller populations in other parts of Asia, including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia and Laos. Due to major threats like human-elephant conflict, loss of habitat and poaching, the Asian elephant population is stable or declining (read more here
). The big issue for Asian elephants is human-elephant conflict because of the very high human populations in Asia. I've got a soft spot for Borneo's pygmy elephants, because there are only a couple of thousand left and they live in a sea of palm oil plantations (read my blog on this here
What is human-elephant conflict (HEC)?
HEC is the official term for what happens when wild elephants clash with people. Conflict usually occurs at night and typically takes the form of damage to crops, water installations (e.g. solar panels, generators, pipes), and injury or losses of both human and elephant life. In India, elephants are killed through poisoning, electrocution and train accidents.
Why does it happen?
Most agree that the root cause of human-elephant conflict
is increasing human populations and the subsequent encroachment on elephant habitats. In the north-east state of Assam, India, 65% of the lowland forests have been destroyed in the last 30 years, for commercial logging, tea plantations and now subsistence farming. Former elephant habitats have become human territory. In Africa, in the last 25 years, the human population doubled (UNEP 2006). The more space we take up, the less there is for elephants.
Where does it happen?
People and elephants directly compete for the same resources - land, water and food. As a result, HEC occurs all over Africa and Asia where wild elephants roam and people live. In India HEC takes on average 400 human lives every year and 100 elephants (even more than poaching). In Africa, the number of lives lost, both human and elephant, across the continent, is probably in the thousands annually.
What can be done to reduce the problem?
Chilli picker, Zambia at the Elephant Pepper Development Trust (T. Matson)
A lot of different techniques have been tried to keep elephants out of people's crops, such as electric fences, trip alarms, drums and loud noises, fire crackers and shooting guns. Use of distressed elephants' ultrasound has even been tried to try and ward elephants off crops. People will do anything to protect their crops because they are often all they have to survive on. But elephants often become habituated to these deterrents.
In Africa, the Elephant Pepper Development Trust
has shown some success using chillies to deter elephants. Elephants don't like the smell of chilli and will stay away from crops that have it. A simple mixture of elephant dung and chilli, dried into a briquette, with a hot coal on top, releases a chilli-smoke, that when placed around crops, can keep elephants away. Chilli fences, which are simple rope fences with chilli and oil doused cloths strung along them, also appear to work. Many of the farmers combine these chilli-based deterrents with growing chilli in and around their maize (corn) crops, which not only serves as a buffer to elephants (because elephants won't eat the chilli), but also gives them a cash crop that they can sell. Chilli is a high net worth crop that brings in a lot more cash than crops like maize and sorghum. Similar trials of chillies to deter elephants are now being trialed in India.
Mitigation measures might help reduce the conflict, but it doesn't really solve the problem, does it?
Baby elephant, Botswana (T. Matson)
That's true. The root cause of HEC is the loss of elephant habitat. Elephants will continue to come into areas where people farm if that is where they roamed previously and there is food available for them there in the form of crops. Elephants love maize, sorghum and rice paddy! In Africa, transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) or 'peace parks' are being developed that connect elephant habitat across large corridors and migration zones. These TFCAs cross country borders, just as elephants do, and within them, people can benefit economically from the presence of elephants through tourism and other income sources.
How long do elephants live?
African elephants live up to 65 years in the wild.
How much do they eat and drink?
African elephants can consume up to 5% of their body weight in a day (up to 300kg) and drink over 200 L of water per day!
How big are they?
Adult male African elephants weigh up to 7.5 tonnes and measure 4 metres at the shoulder. Asian elephants are smaller: adult males weigh about 5 tonnes.
Do elephants speak French?
Only in West Africa.
Sources: WWF, WTI, Project Elephant, WCS, EPDT, IUCN, UNEP, EleAid, TRAFFIC, CITES